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Fräulein else

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Fräulein Else ist eine erschienene Monolog-Novelle des österreichischen Schriftstellers Arthur Schnitzler. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Inhalt; 2 Interpretation. Fräulein Else ist ein deutscher Stummfilm aus dem Jahre nach der gleichnamigen Novelle von Arthur Schnitzler. Unter der Regie von Paul Czinner spielt. Fräulein Else: Novelle | Schnitzler, Arthur | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Die Diskrepanz zwischen dem Sein und dem Schein und die hieraus sich ergebende innere Widersprüchlichkeit werden bereits durch Elses familiäre Situation. Arthur Schnitzler. Fräulein Else.»Du willst wirklich nicht mehr weiterspielen, Else​?«–»Nein, Paul, ich kann nicht mehr. Adieu. – Auf Wiedersehen, gnädige Frau.

(10) Dr. Oliver FrГ¶hlich COALESCE Ox CD | Relapse | ikhp-mtb.se | || Schon mit FrГ¤ulein Antarctica Cat da Gama (ausgefallene Pseudonyme gibt’s (8) Nadine Maas ELSE ADMIRE Disco Solution – Top Dance Hits MCD. Die Diskrepanz zwischen dem Sein und dem Schein und die hieraus sich ergebende innere Widersprüchlichkeit werden bereits durch Elses familiäre Situation. Bei der erschienenen Erzählung»Fräulein Else«von Arthur Schnitzler handelt es sich um einen inneren Monolog der neunzehnjährigen.

GREYS ANATOMY STAFFEL 9 FOLGE 1 Michael glaubt fest an fräulein else Sunny eine Https://ikhp-mtb.se/hd-filme-tv-stream/bad-neighbors-besetzung.php fr ihren subtitrate n limba romn Click here das in der "Nacht".

FrГ¤ulein else Nein, nur verlesen. Das ist zudringlich. Er gibt das Geld. Öffnen Sie das Tor, Herr Matador. I need backup. Kleine Else, sagt please click for source alte Winkler mГ¶rfelden.
MARIA AMANDA Das krokodil und sein nilpferd stream
HELEN DORN FOLGEN Könnte es nicht auch etwas mit meinem Bruder sein? Hier tobt im wahrsten Sinne das Leben. Und der Papa auch. Learn more here antworte nicht, ich nicke nur.
Fräulein else 32
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For narrative texts, these conditions may be roughly stated as follows. The time interval of the first event is explicitly introduced unless contextually given ; all subsequent ones follow chronologically, i.

Thus, a question such as What happened? If your friend comes to your room, pale, trembling and covered with sweat, the question What happened?

Thus, the primary restriction on the events is the definite time interval, although other restrictions are, of course, not excluded.

Both FC and TC may be violated by an utterance. Let us consider some examples of such side structures. An utterance or a clause may serve to specify a time interval in explicit terms, rather than have it simply given by TC.

Most often, subordinate temporal clauses serve exactly this function, and this is the reason why they contribute to the background: They answer the question When did hevent a happen?

Other utterances don't violate TC, but they do not specify an event, as required by FC. There may be some argument here as to what counts as a singular event; for example, an utterance such as The sky was all red is normally interpreted as describing a state; but it may be used to refer to an event, as in Suddenly, the sky was all red.

But neither ambiguities of this kind nor semantic problems of how to define events in contrast to states, processes, etc. Still other utterances may violate both conditions, for example generic statements inserted at some point in the narrative, such as Well, that's how life is or There is always someone who wants to object.

Q1, Q2, The full sentence Nous etions a letude quand le proviseur entra This is a special case, however, in that this whole sentence introduces the story.

Note that our formulation of TC is such that Nous etions a l'etude would not violate TC, since it refers to the first time interval.

What happened to you at ti? But in Peter rang. Then, he rang again, two subsequent events are described by the same information.

So far, we have dealt with the first two inadequacies of the foreground-background distinction, suggested a more general approach, which seems to overcome these insufficiencies, and illustrated it for narratives.

But they have consequences for the expression, too: They indirectly restrict the choice of linguistic devices. The nature of these latter restrictions depends on the specific language and the linguistic means which it offers for expression.

We shall illustrate this again for narrative texts. In section 5 below, it will then be discussed how learners approach the particular system.

Consider another somewhat less straightforward example. Suppose a language has no syntactically determined constituent order but the constituent or constituents which corresponds to the TOPIC comes first, the one or ones which correspond to the FOCUS comes 8 There are cases, though, in which a negated verb can be interpreted to denote an event, in the sense of FC.

If Latin were such a language, then the answer to the question Quis cantat? Conditions such as FC and TC cannot outweigh obligatory syntactic rules, but they can use the options left by these rules.

Whatever survives this process of selection, the speaker must in any event transfer a complex set of information into a linear sequence of utterances linearization.

How straightforward this linearization is, depends on the nature of the information. In the case of narrative texts, the relevant units are sub-events of a total event, and those sub-events are ordered along the time axis.

Linearization is much more problematic when the underlying GV, as in the case of route directions, apartment descriptions, etc.

A convenient way to solve this problem is the introduction of an ancillary temporal structure. In route directions, this ancillary structure is an imaginary wandering Klein , that is, a sequence of possible actions of a participant for example, of the person who asks for route directions ; these actions can be chronologically ordered and thus constitute a projection principle which allows the speaker to solve the linearization problem.

This technique presupposes that such a temporalization makes sense. The use of an ancillary temporal structure is virtually impossible in the case of essentially logical texts, such as an argumentation or an opinion as it was discussed in 2.

There is no uniform principle of how linearization is achieved in these cases, although in practice, there are a number of guide-lines see for argumentation Klein , for linearization in general, Levelt How this is done in different types of texts, is a matter of empirical research.

Referential movement The point of a text is the fact that the entire amount of information to be expressed is distributed over a series of utterances, rather than being patched into a single one.

This distribution is not done at random, but is governed by several principles which impose a certain structure on the text.

Let B be the utterance in question, A the preceding one; as a special case, A should also include the empty utterance, such that B is the first utterance of the text.

Then, the TOPIC condition TC states that, in the case of narratives, a B must include a reference to a time interval tj in the real time axis; b this time interval tj must be after the time interval ti referred to in A although not necessarily adjacent to that time interval ; c this time reference may be implicit; but if it is implicit, it must not be marked as contributing to the FOCUS of B.

A more interesting case are prayers or magic formula whose underlying organisational principles are largely unknown. We simply do not know why, in a love magic, the utterances must be ordered in a certain way to achieve the intended effect.

Moreover, the general idea of information distribution over the utterances normally requires B to contain some new information with respect to A: B must achieve some progress, compared to the state reached after A.

Firstly, they prescribe or exclude specific contents in some domains of reference, for example temporal reference in this case; other domains of reference, such as reference to place or to persons involved are not constrained, although this may be different in other text types than narratives.

In what follows, we will first have a look at the various domains which may be afffected by these constraints section 3.

Then the utterance 3 She drove against the signpost. The speaker has selected particular bits of information among the many he could refer to in his utterance.

The listener will know some but surely not all of bits of information which are not made explicit. For example, he may know from previous utterances what the place of the whole event is and that she refers to an elderly lady; similarly, he may infer from the whole context that she was driving a limousine, rather than a bulldozer.

First, there is contextual information which is directly linked to contextdependent verbal elements in the utterance, such as deixis, anaphora, ellipsis.

The interpretation of an utterance such as Me, too is based on knowledge of the meaning of deictic words and the rules of ellipsis in English, on the one hand, and on access to the necessary contextual information, on the other roughly, the listener must be able to identify who is speaking, and must have heard the previous utterance.

In these cases, we will talk of structure-based or regular context-dependency. The integration of linguistic information proper and of what can be derived by structure-based context-dependency provides the listener with a first interpretation, which we will call proposition.

Therefore, inference is less accessible to linguistic analysis than structure-based contextdependency; but it is no less important for text organisation and more specifically, for referential movement.

Consider a sequence of two utterances such as 4 Yesterday, I went to Heidelberg. My parents-in-law celebrated their silver wedding.

The second utterance contains no spatial reference at all. Still, we tend to infer that this wedding party is in Heidelberg: the spatial reference, taken from the FOCUS of the previous utterance, is maintained.

This inference is not certain the second utterance could continue In what follows, however, we shall not be particularly concerned with those processes which lead from the proposition to the utterance interpretation since they are more on a cognitive than on a linguistic level.

Whenever necessary, we will briefly say by inference. So, we will be mainly concerned with the transition from proposition to proposition.

Consider, for example, the proposition which is expressed when 5 is uttered in some context: 5 Yesterday, the Hammelwades left for Heidelberg.

We have avoided this terminology, especially the term sentence meaning, since we also want to include the meaning of utterances such as Me, too or She him or Why four?

Not all utterances express specific events. They may also render specific states as Yesterday, the Hammelwades were in Heidelberg , property assignments The Hammelwades are sweet , generic or habitual events During the winter, the Hammelwades live in Heidelberg , and maybe others.

To account for this, we need two refinements. First, we will replace the referential domain activity by the more general predicate which will also include property assignments, states, processes etc.

Second, we shall assume that an utterance also contains a reference to a modality; roughly speaking, it is somehow related to a real, a fictitious, a hypothetical world.

Admittedly, this is simply a way to circumvent a whole range of complicated problems, but it will do for our present purposes.

This leaves us with five, rather than four, referential domains: 1. Rt: temporal intervals or times 2. Re: places 3.

Rp: participants 4. Ra: predicates of various types 5. Rm: modality real, fictitious etc. An utterance integrates information from these domains into a proposition.

Note, however, that not all domains must be represented in each utterance. On the other hand, information from one domain may show up several times in either the same or different functions; cf.

Moreover, reference to time, to place, to circumstances may be conflated in one concept, as in On many occasions, there was dancing, to mention but a few of the complications.

In what follows, we shall first sketch a sort of basic structure and then come back to some complications. Traditionally, it is often assumed that reference to a participant P from Rp often encoded by the grammatical subject and reference to a predicate A from Ra often encoded by the grammatical predicate constitute something like the inner core of a proposition, which is then further characterized by a time T and a space L; the resulting structure, the outer core, is then related M to some real or fictitious world.

We will adopt here this conventional picture, arguable as it may be. A mathematical theorem, for example, does not have a time or a place to be referred to; so, its basic structure is reduced by at least two of the components in I.

This is not to be confused with a basic structure in which some domain is not explicitly referred to, although the Sachverhalt itself as such would allow such a reference.

Compare again the propositions expressed by the utterances It was raining and There was dancing.

Note that I relates to the way in which the underlying proposition is organized, not to the way in which the utterance is constructed.

The way in which time, place, participant etc. It may also be that the expression which has this function is very complex and uses features from some other referential domain.

For example, reference to the participant may use spatial or temporal information, as in The man at the corner or Poets from the 19th century.

We will return to this point in a moment. A most elementary realisation of a basic structure like I would look like 6 There and then, she did such and such.

In this case, the linguistic meaning contributes hardly anything to expression of the proposition.

This does not mean that the proposition itself is poor in content; rather, most of what the listener can know about it stems from structure-based context-dependency.

Normally, the linguistic contribution is richer, of course, and we shall return to this issue in section 3. This specification may be introduced in this utterance for the first time, or it may be maintained from a preceding utterance.

It is a simplification, however, to talk just about introduction and maintenance of reference. In what follows, we will give a somewhat refined typology of referential movement.

First, we must distinguish as to whether a certain referential domain, say Rp, was specified in the preceding utterance or not.

In the former case, we will talk of continuation, in the latter, of introduction; note, that continuation does not necessarily involve identity of a referent: it just means that the domain in question, for example Rl, was specified before, no matter how.

The latter case we will call onset, the former entry; in actual texts, this distinction is of minor importance, however. Consider now the various possibilities of continuation.

There is again an important distinction between what we call linkage and switch. In the former case, the specification is related to the content of the previous specification, although this relation need not be identity; in the latter, there is a change of specification without referring back, or using the previous specification.

There are at least three types of linkage. First, the referent specified may be indeed identical; this is the pure case of maintenance; note, again, that this term refers to maintenance of a referent, not of an expression.

Next, it may be that there is an anaphoric linkage, but still, a new referent is introduced; we shall call this type tie. Such a tie may be expressed by words such as thereafter or then in sequences such as He closed the door.

Then, he opened it again, where then means something like at a time tj after the time ti referred to before. Third, there may also be a more vague connection which we will call association; it shows up in cases where, for example, a mountain is introduced and the second utterance refers to the valley or the summit.

Linguistically, this type of linkage is hard to grasp; but its importance for referential movement and for text structure in general is obvious.

A switch, finally, is in a sense comparable to an introduction, except that the position in question was specified before.

Therefore, a switch often has a contrastive function. Thus, in a sequence such as It was strange. Peter cleaned the dishes, the reference to the participant Peter is an introduction more precisely, an entry , whereas in Mary slept.

Peter cleaned the dishes, it is a switch. Let us sum up this typology in a diagram: particular text, or they do show up but are rare or not particularly relevant for the purpose of the investigation.

Therefore, most of the concrete empirical work done in the present framework uses a somewhat simplified version; see, for example, the discussion in v.

Stutterheim chapter 3. In a fairly abstract utterance such as 5 , the various referential domains are neatly separated, that is, there is one expression she for reference to the participant, one expression for reference to the place there , etc.

But in this case, the domain-specific expressions have virtually no descriptive content, and hence, the sentence is somewhat odd.

The lexical meaning of there, for example, makes clear that the referent is a place, and if this reference is understood indeed, then this is only due to the fact that the place in question was referred to before.

Normally, successful reference needs much more descriptive information. This information is provided by words with a richer lexical content or by syntactically compound expressions, or both.

Then, however, the relation between expressions and features expressed becomes much less straightforward than in 5.

This has many consequences for referential movement, three of which will be discussed in the sequel. First, it is one word, in contrast to syntactically compound spatial expressions, such as at the castle, in front of the house or between here and there.

Second, it contains only spatial features, in contrast to for example a 21 verb such as to come, which contains spatial, but also temporal features.

Such a clustering of features also appears in syntactically compound expressions, and this fact often constitutes a problem for referential movement.

An expression such as at the castle is syntactically compound, but homogeneous: it refers to a place. This reference may fill the appropriate position of the basic structure.

In this combination, at the castle, while still being a reference to a place, cannot fill the place coordinate of a basic structure, and hence cannot be maintained as the place reference of some subsequent proposition, for example by the use of anaphoric there: 7 The man at the castle was better informed than our travel guide.

In this example, there is appropriate only if it is clear from some other contextual information that the locus of the whole action is at the castle, but not as direct anaphoric maintenance from the first of the two utterances.

It is not true, however, that anaphoric linkage could not cross the referential positions of the basic structure.

Consider an example where a place reference functions as a part of the predicate reference, as in the compound predicate being at the castle: 8 We were at the castle.

Here, anaphoric linkage is clearly possible, or, to put it slightly differently, the place introduced in the first utterance, where it is part of the predicate, is accessible to anaphoric maintenance within the basic structure.

This is quite typical for compound predicates. It is difficult to say what is responsible for these differences in accessibility as exemplified by 7 and 8.

The type of compoundness is one factor, but clearly not the only one. Moreover, accessibility to anaphoric maintenance often correlates with accessibility to other semantic processes, such as the possibility of being marked as TOPIC or modifiability by an adverb, to which we will turn now.

Time and participant are the same, and the grammatical predicate refers to the same action; but in the second case, some of the semantic features implicitly contained in crowned him are singled out and referred to explicitly.

This singling out of two components makes them accessible to anaphoric processes. Thus, 10 but not 9 allows the continuation: 22 11 It looked splendid there.

Thus, it cannot be used to answer the question Where did Leo put the crown? Thirdly, when features are encapsulated in a single lexical item, they offer limited access to further modification.

Thus, the crowned from 9 implies a crown, as is evidenced by the possible continuation The crown was splendid with a definite article.

But this implicit crown cannot be further specified so long as it is only implicit. This is not to mean that no feature within crowned is accessible; adverbials, such as rapidly, may easily address temporal characteristics of the predicate.

There is a third, in a sense complementary, problem with maintaining reference. If several features are available for anaphoric maintenance, which among them are picked up and maintained by a specific anaphoric devices?

We will briefly discuss this bundling of features. An anaphoric term may pick out some referent in a selective way, such as there for place, they for the participant, etc.

But there are also anaphoric terms which bundle various types of information, for example this. Consider the following four possible continuations: 13 a We may do this, as well.

We thought they had already left last week. In all of these cases, this picks up a different bundle of features among those which were introduced before.

Thus, it is quite unselective with respect to referential movement: this maintains the central feature, or features, of a proposition, which are contained in the predicate, and an arbitrary share of peripheral features, namely all of those components of the basic structure which are not freshly specified.

A brief summary Before turning to learner varieties, it may be useful to sum up in brief what has been said in the preceding sections.

In the next section, we will exemplify and discuss some of the probems which a learner has to solve when acquiring the complex mapping characteristic of the language to be learned.

Narrating and describing in L2 In essence, what has been said far about the principles of text organisation applies to adult second language speakers much in the same way as for native speakers.

Confronted with a communicative task as telling a narrative, giving route directions or describing a picture, the L2 speaker must solve the same conceptual task in terms of selecting the relevant parts of her knowledge base, structuring, and linearising a complex body of information.

The constructive function of the QUAESTIO and the constraints implied for the production of the answer text can be taken as pragmatic knowledge which an adult speaker of any language has at her disposal and which is not tied to specific linguistic means.

Differences between the two groups of speakers, however, arise when it comes to the linguistic devices available to the speaker.

Here the L2 speaker can be far more restricted and she can even be forced to adjust her communicative intentions to her linguistic repertoire.

As the worst consequence this might result in the fact that in a conversation a question posed by the interlocutor cannot be answered at all.

In the given context we want to look at the relation between linguistic competence and complex text production for learners with very limited command of a second language.

How is it possible that these learners are able to communicate information about complex states of affairs in the form of narratives or descriptions?

More specifically, what is the role of the quaestio and its implications in the text production of L2 speakers and how is the selection of specific expressive devices guided by the structural properties of the texts?

In order to identify the function of the QUAESTIO constraints in text production we will look at learner texts of two different types: narratives and descriptions.

The data are selected from a larger corpus elicited from Turkish migrant workers in Germany. They had been living in Germany for several years and had acquired German without the support of classroom teaching.

The texts were recorded within the frame of an unguided conversation between the informant, a German interlocutor and in some cases also a Turkish bilingual student cf.

Stutterheim They are produced as answers to an information question rather than to entertain a hearer. In the analysis below we will first sketch the constraints set up by the quaestio for the different domains involved.

Then the text will be analysed with respect to the patterns of referential movement and the relation between explicit and implicit information components.

You are new one week 25 kann ich nicht I cannot 26 keine urlaub 25 no holiday 27 krankgeschrieben geht nicht sick leave not possible 28 und ich and I 29 naja gibse mir meine papiere alle alle okay give me my papers all all 30 und ich gehen kindergarten and I go nursery 31 und 2 tage das ist windpocken and 2 days this is chicken pocks The introductory question of the interlocutor points at a general problem: What happens when your child falls ill?

The speaker gives a brief general answer and then turns to narrating a personal experience to illustrate the situation The shift from a general statement to a narration becomes apparent through the introduction of a specific temporal interval by erstemal at first.

The constraints which can be taken as a scaffold for the construction of the text affect the following domains. The speaker and her child function as topic elements, a specific time interval is introduced although not referentially fixed as the beginning of a sequence of temporally linked intervals, the predicate domain has to be filled by references to events, the validity status of main structure utterances is factual.

Utterances which form the structural backbone of the text will obey these constraints. Let us now look in detail at the construction of the text and the means used to convey the complex information structure.

The speaker begins with a scene setting passage in which she specifies that part of the question which refers to working conditions.

By the temporal adverbial erstemal at first she establishes a particular time interval which serves the function to delimit the proposition as individually located in time from the preceding hypothetical propositions.

Reference to the working place and the durative predicate arbeiten to work leads to a static interpretation. Utterance 11 in itself is not clear as to its function within the narrative.

However, followed by the temporal adverbial letztes Tage last day in 12 its function becomes apparent. It serves as a temporal reference anchoring the beginning of the event chain.

Given the telic predicate anrufen in combination with a specific time reference the utterance will be interpreted as referring to a singular event.

The event line is continued implicitly by an event of direct speech, furtheron in 21 and It is taken up in by a not explicitly introduced sequence of direct speech, continued in 28 and finally in 30 and The type of semantic relation between main and side structure varies and although there is no explicit information as to how a side structure utterance has to be integrated e.

Let us take 13 as an example. Since there is no evidence for integrating this utterance into the chain of the events, e. As has been described in several studies on narratives e.

Labov , Quasthoff direct speech is a frequent phenomenon in standard language, too. This function might also be involved for the L2-speaker, it seems to be more important, however, that a direct quotation reduces structural complexity at utterance level.

The perspective of the quoted person does not have to be anchored explicitly, all deictic parameters are fixed within a field of secondary deixis, as soon as the frame of quotation is established.

With respect to the global structure of the narrative text the passages of direct speech are implicitly integrated. Although the situations referred to in the quotes cannot be located within the chain of events it is the act of speaking which is part of the story line.

Which devices does the speaker use to convey the information structure? As can be seen in the text, the speaker has acquired very little verbal and nominal morphology, formally inflected forms such as geht goes or kann can do not contrast with other inflected forms of the same verbs and therefore have to be analysed as rote forms and not as finite verbs.

The function of finiteness, lying in the modal and temporal anchoring of a propositional content, is taken over by the global frame values and lexical references.

Conjunctions and other function words are absent in the text. The linguistic system the speaker has at her disposal consists of a lexicon of content words with a few exceiptions and word order as grammatical device.

The speaker follows a strategy which allows him to convey macrostructural properties of the underlying information structure: Utterances are refrentially complete to varying degrees.

This is to say, even where the subject or the predicate could be inferred from the context the elements might be expressed for structural reasons.

In general we can say that main structure utterances are more explicit containing subject and predicate 14, 21, 22, 30 , whereas side structure utterances can be more reduced e.

This opposition between more or less reduced utterances with respect to the grammatically obligatory elements subject and predicate can also be observed in standard language texts cf.

The elliptic or reduced forms serve to signal dependency either of side structure material or within an hierarchically organised event structure.

The sequence of utterances produced by the speaker can be interpreted as narrative although central linguistic devices for conveying coherence relations are absent.

This is possible because of the scaffolding function of the globally established QUAESTIO parameters and because of the controlled integration of relevant presupposed knowledge.

Indepth analysis of a larger corpus cf. Stutterheim showed that this expression is used to serve different functions. Mostly it can be found in relation to a focussed element, highlighting a specific piece of information.

Temporal reference is not specified. It is, however, clear that the events are located on the time axis before speech time.

Linearisation of main structure events follows a temporal criterion. The validity status of main structure utterances is factual, the predicates have to be of the event-type two state-predicates or bounded states.

In addition, a knowledge frame is activated which encompasses working conditions, in particular at hospitals. As we can see in the data, the speaker bases the construction of her discourse on the basis that the aspects of the information structure mentioned above are part of common knowledge between speaker and hearer.

This information builds a contrast to the introductory statement of the notice explicitly marked by aber but , motivating the following story.

Here, again the rhetorical device of direct quotation allows the speaker to present causally interrelated facts and opinions, which otherwise would have to be expressed by subordination and unambiguous referential devices.

When we look at the relation between explicit and implicit pieces of information we get the following picture. The speaker produces sequences of lexical items with hardly any explicit syntactic marking.

At utterance level, the information which is carried by the finiteness of the predicate in the target language has to be inferred on the basis of the global frame.

As regards the text level, there are different sources the hearer can draw upon for the interpretation of inter-utterance relations.

First there is an explicit device which is systematically used to mark main structure utterances. The temporal anaphor dann then can be found consistently in utterance initial position, reflecting the structuring function of the temporal linearisation principle.

They have to be infered on the basis of the semantics of the lexical items used and general and specific knowledge about the situation presented in the text.

Bringing together what we have found in the two narratives the following conclusions can be drawn.

Both speakers follow basically the same strategy. They present their narrative strictly within the frame of the global structure established by the quaestio.

Events are organised in chronological order and are marked as temporally bounded, specific events by means of lexical forms e.

Presently one or two persons came in, single men with some occupation in Lucerne and obviously Swiss, and sat down each at his own little table and untied the napkins that at the end of luncheon they had neatly tied up.

They propped newspapers against their water-jugs and read while they somewhat noisily ate their soup. Then entered a very old tall bent man, with white hair and a drooping white moustache, accompanied by a little old white-haired lady in black.

These were certainly the Irish colonel and his wife of whom the landlady had spoken. They took their seats and the colonel poured out a thimbleful of wine for his wife and a thimbleful for himself.

They waited in silence for their dinner to be served to them by the buxom, hearty maid. At last the persons arrived for whom Ashenden had been waiting.

He was doing his best to read a German book and it was only by an exercise of self-control that he allowed himself only for one instant to raise his eyes as they came in.

His glance showed him a man of about forty-five with short dark hair, somewhat grizzled, of middle height, but corpulent, with a broad red cleanshaven face.

He wore a shirt open at the neck, with a wide collar, and a grey suit. He walked ahead of his wife, and of her Ashenden only caught the impression of a German woman self-effaced and dusty.

Grantley Caypor sat down and began in a loud voice explaining to the waitress that they had taken an immense walk.

They had been up some mountain the name of which meant nothing to Ashenden, but which excited in the maid expressions of astonishment and enthusiasm.

Then Caypor, still in fluent German but with a marked English accent, said that they were so late they had not even gone up to wash, but had just rinsed their hands outside.

He had a resonant voice and a jovial manner. He seemed to be a man of exuberant vitality. He brought into that dull, overclean dining-room the breath of life, and everyone in it appeared on a sudden more alert.

He began to talk to his wife, in English, and everything he said could be heard by all; but presently she interrupted him with a remark made in an undertone.

Caypor stopped and Ashenden felt that his eyes were turned in his direction. When he addressed his wife again it was in so low a tone that Ashenden could not even tell what language he used, but when the maid brought them their soup Caypor, his voice still low, asked her a question.

It was plain that he was inquiring who Ashenden was. One or two people finished their dinner and went out picking their teeth.

The old Irish colonel and his old wife rose from their table and he stood aside to let her pass. They had eaten their meal without exchanging a word.

She walked slowly to the door; but the colonel stopped to say a word to a Swiss who might have been a local attorney, and when she reached it she stood there, bowed and with a sheep-like look, patiently waiting for her husband to come and open it for her.

Ashenden realized that she had never opened a door for herself. She did not know how to. In a minute the colonel with his old, old gait came to the door and opened it; she passed out and he followed.

The little incident offered a key to their whole lives, and from it Ashenden began to reconstruct their histories, circumstances, and characters; but he pulled himself up; he could not allow himself the luxury of creation.

He finished his dinner. The landlady was standing at the foot of the stairs. Fritzi, he is called. Herr Caypor says he has a longer pedigree than the King of England.

Ashenden went upstairs to fetch his hat, and when he came down saw Caypor standing at the entrance of the hotel talking with the landlady.

From the sudden silence and their constrained manner he guessed that Caypor had been making inquiries about him. When he passed between them, into the street, out of the corner of his eye he saw Caypor give a suspicious stare.

That frank, jovial red face bore then a look of shifty cunning. Ashenden strolled along till he found a tavern where he could have his coffee in the open and to compensate himself for the bottle of beer that his sense of duty had urged him to drink at dinner ordered the best brandy the house provided.

It is never very difficult to get to know anyone who has a dog. But he was in no hurry; he would let things take their course; with the object he had in view he could not afford to be hasty.

Ashenden reviewed the circumstances. Grantley Caypor was an Englishman, born according to his passport in Birmingham, and he was forty-two years of age.

His wife, to whom he had been married for eleven years, was of German birth and parentage. That was public knowledge. Information about his antecedents was contained in a private document.

He had been connected with an English paper in Cairo and with another in Shanghai. There he got into trouble for attempting to get money on false pretences and was sentenced to a short term of imprisonment.

All trace of him was lost for two years after his release, when he reappeared in a shipping office in Marseilles. From there, still in the shipping business, he went to Hamburg, where he married, and to London.

In London he set up for himself in the export business, but after some time failed and was made a bankrupt.

He returned to journalism. At the outbreak of war he was once more in the shipping business, and in August was living quietly with his German wife at Southampton.

In the beginning of the following year he told his employers that owing to the nationality of his wife the position was intolerable; they had no fault to find with him and, recognizing that he was in an awkward fix, granted his request that he should be transferred to Genoa.

Here he remained till Italy entered the war, but then gave notice and with his papers in perfect order crossed the border and took up his residence in Switzerland.

All this indicated a man of doubtful honesty and unsettled disposition, with no background and of no financial standing; but the facts were of no importance to anyone till it was discovered that Caypor, certainly from the beginning of the war and perhaps sooner, was in the service of the German Intelligence Department.

He had a salary of forty pounds a month. But though dangerous and wily no steps would have been taken to deal with him if he had contented himself with transmitting such news as he was able to get in Switzerland.

He could do no great harm there and it might even be possible to make use of him to convey information that it was desirable to let the enemy have.

He had no notion that anything was known of him. His letters, and he received a good many, were closely censored; there were few codes that the people who dealt with such matters could not in the end decipher and it might be that sooner or later through him it would be possible to lay hands on the organization that still flourished in England.

But then he did something that drew R. Had he known it none could have blamed him for shaking in his shoes: R.

Caypor scraped acquaintance in Zurich with a young Spaniard, Gomez by name, who had lately entered the British secret service, by his nationality inspired him with confidence, and managed to worm out of him the fact that he was engaged in espionage.

He was tried, convicted, and shot. It was bad enough to lose a useful and disinterested agent, but it entailed besides the changing of a safe and simple code.

But R. The fact that he had succeeded in delivering into their hands an agent of the Allies must seem to them an earnest of his good faith.

He might be very useful. It was a task that needed tact and a knowledge of men. If on the other hand Ashenden came to the conclusion that Caypor could not be bought, he was to watch and report his movements.

Caypor was asking for a higher salary and Major von P. It might be that he was urging him to go to England. If he was being pressed for results it must surely occur to him that it would be worth while to get into conversation with an Englishman who was employed in the Censorship Department.

Ashenden was prepared with a supply of information that it could not in the least benefit the Central Powers to possess.

With a false name and a false passport he had little to fear that Caypor would guess that he was a British agent. Ashenden did not have to wait long.

Mrs Caypor went upstairs and Caypor released his dog. The dog bounded along and in a friendly fashion leaped up against Ashenden. Are you making a stay?

The maid came with the coffee and seeing Caypor talking to Ashenden put the tray on the table at which he was sitting.

Caypor gave a laugh of faint embarrassment. Are you English, by the way, or American? Ashenden was by nature a very shy person, and he had in vain tried to cure himself of a failing that at his age was unseemly, but on occasion he knew how to make effective use of it.

He explained now in a hesitating and awkward manner the facts that he had the day before told the landlady and that he was convinced she had already passed on to Caypor.

Everyone thought she was a spy. Naturally it made my position very awkward. Well, to cut a long story short I thought the most dignified course was to resign and come to a neutral country till the storm blew over.

I should like to introduce you to her. Grantley Caypor. Presently he told him that he was looking for someone to give him conversation-lessons in German so that he might rub up his rusty knowledge of the language; and as he spoke a notion flashed across his mind; he gave Caypor a look and saw that same notion had come to him.

I must ask her again. It ought not be very hard to find a man who is prepared to come and talk German to me for an hour a day. Ashenden observed Grantley Caypor at his ease.

He noticed how the small, grey-green eyes, which last night he had not been able to see, contradicted the red good-humoured frankness of the face.

They were quick and shifty, but when the mind behind them was seized by an unexpected notion they were suddenly still. It gave one a peculiar feeling of the working of the brain.

They were not eyes that inspired confidence; Caypor did that with his jolly, good-natured smile, the openness of his broad, weather-beaten face, his comfortable obesity and the cheeriness of his loud deep voice.

He was doing his best now to be agreeable. While Ashenden talked to him, a little shyly still but gaining confidence from that breezy, cordial manner, capable of putting anyone at his j ease, it intrigued him to remember that the man was a common spy.

It gave a tang to his conversation to reflect that he had been ready to sell his country for no more than forty pounds a month.

Ashenden had known Gomez, the young Spaniard whom Caypor had betrayed. He was a high-spirited youth, with a love of adventure, and he had undertaken his dangerous mission not for the money he earned by it, but from a passion for romance.

It was not very nice to think of him now six feet underground in a prison yard. He was young and he had a certain grace of gesture.

Ashenden wondered whether Caypor had felt a qualm when he delivered him up to destruction. I can still read it very comfortably.

It was only a little while since he had told Ashenden that he had not seen him at dinner. He wondered whether Caypor had observed the slip.

How difficult it was never to make one! Ashenden must be on his guard; the thing that made him most nervous was the thought that he might not answer readily enough to his assumed name of Somerville.

Caypor got up. We go for a walk up one of the mountains every afternoon. I can tell you some charming walks.

The flowers even now are lovely. He had naturally a pale face and never looked as robust as he was. Mrs Caypor came downstairs and her husband joined her.

They walked down the road, Fritzi bounding round them, and Ashenden saw that Caypor immediately began to speak with volubility. He was evidently telling his wife the results of his interview with Ashenden.

Ashenden looked at the sun shining so gaily on the lake; the shadow of a breeze fluttered the green leaves of the trees; everything invited a stroll: he got up, went to his room and throwing himself on his bed had a very pleasant sleep.

He went in to dinner that evening as the Caypors were finishing, for he had wandered melancholy about Lucerne in the hope of finding a cocktail that would enable him to face the potato salad that he foresaw, and on their way out of the dining-room Caypor stopped and asked him if he would drink coffee with them.

When Ashenden joined them in the hall Caypor got up and introduced him to his wife. It was not hard to see that her attitude was definitely hostile.

It put Ashenden at his ease. But she did not look stupid; she looked on the contrary, a woman of character, and Ashenden, who had lived enough in Germany to recognize the type, was ready to believe that though capable of doing the housework, cooking the dinner, and climbing a mountain, she might be also prodigiously well-informed.

She wore a white blouse that showed a sunburned neck, a black skirt and heavy walking boots. Caypor addressing her in English told her in his jovial way, as though she did not know it already, what Ashenden had told him about himself.

She listened grimly. I was at school there for one year. Her English was correct, but throaty, and the mouthing emphasis she gave her words was disagreeable.

Ashenden was diffuse in praise of the old university town and the beauty of the neighbourhood. She heard him, from the standpoint of her Teutonic superiority, with toleration rather than with enthusiasm.

I told him that perhaps you could suggest a teacher. It could do Mr Somerville only harm to converse with a Swiss.

She is, if I may say so, a very cultivated and highly educated woman. I have my own work to do. Ashenden saw that he was being given his opportunity.

The trap was prepared and all he had to do was to fall in. He turned to Mrs Caypor with a manner that he tried to make shy, deprecating and modest.

I should look upon it as a real privilege. I am just here to get well, with nothing in the world to do, and I would suit my time entirely to your convenience.

Would you think ten francs an hour too much? Surely you can spare an hour, and you would be doing this gentleman a kindness.

He would learn that all Germans are not the devilish fiends that they think them in England. Heaven only knew how he would have to rack his brain for subjects of discourse with that heavy and morose woman.

Now she made a visible effort. When will you start, tomorrow at eleven? Ashenden left them to discuss the happy outcome of their diplomacy.

But when, punctually at eleven next morning, he heard a knock at his door for it had been arranged that Mrs Caypor should give him his lesson in his room it was not without trepidation that he opened it.

It behoved him to be frank, a trifle indiscreet, but obviously wary of a German woman, sufficiently intelligent, and impulsive.

She plainly hated having anything to do with him. But they sat down and she began, somewhat peremptorily, to ask him questions about his knowledge of German literature.

She corrected his mistakes with exactness and when he put before her some difficulty in German construction explained it with clearness and precision.

It was obvious that though she hated giving him a lesson she meant to give it conscientiously. She seemed to have not only an aptitude for teaching, but a love of it, and as the hour went on she began to speak with greater earnestness.

It was already only by an effort that she remembered that he was a brutal Englishman. Ashenden, noticing the unconscious struggle within her, found himself not a little entertained; and it was with truth that, when later in the day Caypor asked him how the lesson had gone, he answered that it was highly satisfactory; Mrs Caypor was an excellent teacher and a most interesting person.

And Ashenden had a feeling that when in his hearty, laughing way Caypor said this he was for the first time entirely sincere.

In a day or two Ashenden guessed that Mrs Caypor was giving him lessons only in order to enable Caypor to arrive at a closer intimacy with him, for she confined herself strictly to matters of literature, music, and painting; and when Ashenden, by way of experiment, brought the conversation round to the war, she cut him short.

Ashenden exercised in turn, but in vain, all his wiles. He was ingratiating, ingenuous, humble, grateful, flattering, simple, and timid.

She remained coldly hostile. She was a fanatic. Her patriotism was aggressive, but disinterested, and obsessed with the notion of the superiority of all things German she loathed England with a virulent hatred because in that country she saw the chief obstacle to their diffusion.

Her ideal was a German world in which the rest of the nations under a hegemony greater than that of Rome should enjoy the benefits of German science and German art and German culture.

She was no fool. She had read much, in several languages, and she could talk of the books she had read with good sense.

She had a knowledge of modern painting and modern music that not a little impressed Ashenden. It was amusing once to hear her before luncheon play one of those silvery little pieces of Debussy; she played it disdainfully because it was French and so light, but with an angry appreciation of its grace and gaiety.

When Ashenden congratulated her she shrugged her shoulders. Then with powerful hands she struck the first resounding chords of a sonata by Beethoven; but she stopped.

You have not produced a composer since Purcell! The little I know of music my wife taught me.

I wish you could hear her play when she is in practice. I wonder why. Ashenden admired goodness, but was not outraged by wickedness.

People sometimes thought him heartless because he was more often interested in others than attached to them, and even in the few to whom he was attached his eyes saw with equal clearness the merits and the defects.

When he liked people it was not because he was blind to their faults, he did not mind their faults but accepted them with a tolerant shrug of the shoulders, or because he ascribed to them excellencies that they did not possess; and since he judged his friends with candour they never disappointed him and so he seldom lost one.

He asked from none more than he could give. He was able to pursue his study of the Caypors without prejudice and without passion.

It was touching. Ashenden assembled the observations that he had been making for the past few days and little things that he had noticed but to which he had attached no significance returned to him.

But then there was the espionage. Even Ashenden with all his tolerance for human frailty could not but feel that to betray your country for money is not a very pretty proceeding.

Of course she knew of it, indeed it was probably through her that Caypor had first been approached; he would never have undertaken such work if she had not urged him to it.

She loved him and she was an honest and an upright woman. By what devious means had she persuaded herself to force her husband to adopt so base and dishonourable a calling?

Ashenden lost himself in a labyrinth of conjecture as he tried to piece together the actions of her mind.

Grantley Caypor was another story. There was little to admire in him, but at that moment Ashenden was not looking for an object of admiration; but there was much that was singular and much that was unexpected in that gross and vulgar fellow.

Ashenden watched with entertainment the suave manner in which the spy tried to inveigle him in his toils. His faithful Fritzi came up to him and put his long muzzle with its black nose on his knee.

Look at those little pink eyes. Did you ever see anything so stupid? And what an ugly face, but what incredible charm!

By the way, what do you think of the news today? Of course my wife and I never discuss the war. He handed Ashenden a cheap Swiss cigar and Ashenden, making a rueful sacrifice to duty, accepted it.

I knew they were beaten the moment we came in. His manner was earnest, sincere, and confidential. Ashenden made a commonplace rejoinder.

With my knowledge of languages I ought to be of some service in the Censorship Department. That was the mark at which he had been aiming and in answer now to his well-directed questions Ashenden gave him the information that he had already prepared.

Caypor drew his chair a little nearer and dropped his voice. Then he went on another tack. He told Ashenden a number of things that were of a certain secrecy.

Thus encouraged, Ashenden was a little more deliberately indiscreet and when they parted both had reason to be satisfied.

One evening, going upstairs after dinner, Ashenden passed an open bathroom. He caught sight of the Caypors.

Ashenden went in. Mrs Caypor with her sleeves turned up and a large white apron was standing at one end of the bath, while Caypor, in a pair of trousers and a singlet, his fat, freckled arms bare, was soaping the wretched hound.

We wait till they go to bed. Come along, Fritzi, show the gentleman how beautifully you behave when you have your face scrubbed. The poor brute, woebegone but faintly wagging his tail to show that however foul was this operation performed on him he bore no malice to the god who did it, was standing in the middle of the bath in six inches of water.

He was soaped all over and Caypor, talking the while, shampooed him with his great fat hands. Now stand still while you have your ears washed.

Noblesse oblige. Now the black nose. Mrs Caypor listened to this nonsense with a good-humoured sluggish smile on her broad, plain face, and presently gravely took a towel.

Caypor seized the dog by the fore-legs and ducked him once and ducked him twice. There was a struggle, a flurry and a splashing.

Caypor lifted him out of the bath. Mrs Caypor sat down and taking the dog between her strong legs rubbed him till the sweat poured off her forehead.

Ashenden was faintly troubled. He shivered a little as he walked upstairs. Then, one Sunday, Caypor told him that he and his wife were going on an excursion and would eat their luncheon at some little mountain restaurant; and he suggested that Ashenden, each paying his share, should come with them.

After three weeks at Lucerne Ashenden thought that his strength would permit him to venture the exertion. They started early, Mrs Caypor businesslike in her walking boots and Tyrolese hat and alpenstock, and Caypor in stockings and plus-fours looking very British.

The situation amused Ashenden and he was prepared to enjoy his day; but he meant to keep his eyes open; it was not inconceivable that the Caypors had discovered what he was and it would not do to go too near a precipice; Mrs Caypor would not hesitate to give him a push and Caypor for all his jolliness was an ugly customer.

The air was fragrant. Caypor was full of conversation. He told funny stories. He was gay and jovial. The sweat rolled off his great red face and he laughed at himself because he was so fat.

Once he went out of the way to pick one he saw a little distance from the path and brought it back to his wife. He looked at it tenderly.

He is devoted to flowers. Often when we have hardly had enough money to pay the butcher he has spent everything in his pocket to bring me a bunch of roses.

Ashenden had once or twice seen Caypor, coming in from a walk, offer Mrs Fitzgerald a nosegay of mountain flowers with an elephantine courtesy that was not entirely displeasing; and what he had just learned added a certain significance to the pretty little action.

His passion for flowers was genuine and when he gave them to the old Irish lady he gave her something he valued.

It showed a real kindness of heart. Ashenden had always thought botany a tedious science, but Caypor, talking exuberantly as they walked along, was able to impart to it life and interest.

He must have given it a good deal of study. But if I stay here much longer I have half a mind to write a book about the wild flowers of Switzerland.

They were marvellous. It was curious to observe how he was able to combine real emotion with false fact. When they reached the inn, with its view of the mountains and the lake, it was good to see the sensual pleasure with which he poured down his throat a bottle of ice-cold beer.

You could not but feel sympathy for a man who took so much delight in simple things. Even Mrs Caypor was moved to an unwonted gentleness by her surroundings; the inn was in an agreeably rural spot, it looked like a picture of a Swiss chalet in a book of early nineteenth-century travels; and she treated Ashenden with something less than her usual hostility.

When they arrived she had burst into loud German exclamations on the beauty of the scene, and now, softened perhaps too by food and drink, her eyes, dwelling on the grandeur before her, filled with tears.

She stretched out her hand. Caypor took her hand and pressed it and, an unusual thing with him, addressing her in German, called her little pet-names.

It was absurd, but touching. Ashenden, leaving them to their emotions, strolled through the garden and sat down on a bench that had been prepared for the comfort of the tourist.

The view was of course spectacular, but it captured you; it was like a piece of music that was obvious and meretricious, but for the moment shattered your self-control.

If he liked strange people he had found in him one who was strange beyond belief. It would be foolish to deny that he had amiable traits.

His joviality was not assumed, he was without pretence a hearty fellow, and he had real good nature. He was always ready to do a kindness.

Now that Ashenden had arrived at terms of some familiarity with Caypor he found that he regarded him less with repulsion than with curiosity.

He did not think that he had become a spy merely for the money; he was a man of modest tastes and what he had earned in a shipping-office must have sufficed to so good a manager as Mrs Caypor; and after war was declared there was no lack of remunerative work for men over the military age.

It might be that he was one of those men who prefer devious, ways to straight for some intricate pleasure they get in fooling their fellows; and that he had turned spy, not from hatred of the country that had imprisoned him, not even from love of his wife, but from a desire to score off the big-wigs who never even knew of his existence.

It might be that it was vanity that impelled him, a feeling that his talents had not received the recognition they merited, or just a puckish, impish desire to do mischief.

On the back of this improved access, the number of users increased dramatically, with video requests averaging over per working day by the end of the year.

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That was public knowledge. Information about his antecedents was contained in a private document. He had been connected with an English paper in Cairo and with another in Shanghai.

There he got into trouble for attempting to get money on false pretences and was sentenced to a short term of imprisonment.

All trace of him was lost for two years after his release, when he reappeared in a shipping office in Marseilles. From there, still in the shipping business, he went to Hamburg, where he married, and to London.

In London he set up for himself in the export business, but after some time failed and was made a bankrupt. He returned to journalism. At the outbreak of war he was once more in the shipping business, and in August was living quietly with his German wife at Southampton.

In the beginning of the following year he told his employers that owing to the nationality of his wife the position was intolerable; they had no fault to find with him and, recognizing that he was in an awkward fix, granted his request that he should be transferred to Genoa.

Here he remained till Italy entered the war, but then gave notice and with his papers in perfect order crossed the border and took up his residence in Switzerland.

All this indicated a man of doubtful honesty and unsettled disposition, with no background and of no financial standing; but the facts were of no importance to anyone till it was discovered that Caypor, certainly from the beginning of the war and perhaps sooner, was in the service of the German Intelligence Department.

He had a salary of forty pounds a month. But though dangerous and wily no steps would have been taken to deal with him if he had contented himself with transmitting such news as he was able to get in Switzerland.

He could do no great harm there and it might even be possible to make use of him to convey information that it was desirable to let the enemy have.

He had no notion that anything was known of him. His letters, and he received a good many, were closely censored; there were few codes that the people who dealt with such matters could not in the end decipher and it might be that sooner or later through him it would be possible to lay hands on the organization that still flourished in England.

But then he did something that drew R. Had he known it none could have blamed him for shaking in his shoes: R. Caypor scraped acquaintance in Zurich with a young Spaniard, Gomez by name, who had lately entered the British secret service, by his nationality inspired him with confidence, and managed to worm out of him the fact that he was engaged in espionage.

He was tried, convicted, and shot. It was bad enough to lose a useful and disinterested agent, but it entailed besides the changing of a safe and simple code.

But R. The fact that he had succeeded in delivering into their hands an agent of the Allies must seem to them an earnest of his good faith.

He might be very useful. It was a task that needed tact and a knowledge of men. If on the other hand Ashenden came to the conclusion that Caypor could not be bought, he was to watch and report his movements.

Caypor was asking for a higher salary and Major von P. It might be that he was urging him to go to England.

If he was being pressed for results it must surely occur to him that it would be worth while to get into conversation with an Englishman who was employed in the Censorship Department.

Ashenden was prepared with a supply of information that it could not in the least benefit the Central Powers to possess.

With a false name and a false passport he had little to fear that Caypor would guess that he was a British agent. Ashenden did not have to wait long.

Mrs Caypor went upstairs and Caypor released his dog. The dog bounded along and in a friendly fashion leaped up against Ashenden.

Are you making a stay? The maid came with the coffee and seeing Caypor talking to Ashenden put the tray on the table at which he was sitting.

Caypor gave a laugh of faint embarrassment. Are you English, by the way, or American? Ashenden was by nature a very shy person, and he had in vain tried to cure himself of a failing that at his age was unseemly, but on occasion he knew how to make effective use of it.

He explained now in a hesitating and awkward manner the facts that he had the day before told the landlady and that he was convinced she had already passed on to Caypor.

Everyone thought she was a spy. Naturally it made my position very awkward. Well, to cut a long story short I thought the most dignified course was to resign and come to a neutral country till the storm blew over.

I should like to introduce you to her. Grantley Caypor. Presently he told him that he was looking for someone to give him conversation-lessons in German so that he might rub up his rusty knowledge of the language; and as he spoke a notion flashed across his mind; he gave Caypor a look and saw that same notion had come to him.

I must ask her again. It ought not be very hard to find a man who is prepared to come and talk German to me for an hour a day.

Ashenden observed Grantley Caypor at his ease. He noticed how the small, grey-green eyes, which last night he had not been able to see, contradicted the red good-humoured frankness of the face.

They were quick and shifty, but when the mind behind them was seized by an unexpected notion they were suddenly still. It gave one a peculiar feeling of the working of the brain.

They were not eyes that inspired confidence; Caypor did that with his jolly, good-natured smile, the openness of his broad, weather-beaten face, his comfortable obesity and the cheeriness of his loud deep voice.

He was doing his best now to be agreeable. While Ashenden talked to him, a little shyly still but gaining confidence from that breezy, cordial manner, capable of putting anyone at his j ease, it intrigued him to remember that the man was a common spy.

It gave a tang to his conversation to reflect that he had been ready to sell his country for no more than forty pounds a month.

Ashenden had known Gomez, the young Spaniard whom Caypor had betrayed. He was a high-spirited youth, with a love of adventure, and he had undertaken his dangerous mission not for the money he earned by it, but from a passion for romance.

It was not very nice to think of him now six feet underground in a prison yard. He was young and he had a certain grace of gesture.

Ashenden wondered whether Caypor had felt a qualm when he delivered him up to destruction. I can still read it very comfortably.

It was only a little while since he had told Ashenden that he had not seen him at dinner. He wondered whether Caypor had observed the slip.

How difficult it was never to make one! Ashenden must be on his guard; the thing that made him most nervous was the thought that he might not answer readily enough to his assumed name of Somerville.

Caypor got up. We go for a walk up one of the mountains every afternoon. I can tell you some charming walks. The flowers even now are lovely.

He had naturally a pale face and never looked as robust as he was. Mrs Caypor came downstairs and her husband joined her. They walked down the road, Fritzi bounding round them, and Ashenden saw that Caypor immediately began to speak with volubility.

He was evidently telling his wife the results of his interview with Ashenden. Ashenden looked at the sun shining so gaily on the lake; the shadow of a breeze fluttered the green leaves of the trees; everything invited a stroll: he got up, went to his room and throwing himself on his bed had a very pleasant sleep.

He went in to dinner that evening as the Caypors were finishing, for he had wandered melancholy about Lucerne in the hope of finding a cocktail that would enable him to face the potato salad that he foresaw, and on their way out of the dining-room Caypor stopped and asked him if he would drink coffee with them.

When Ashenden joined them in the hall Caypor got up and introduced him to his wife. It was not hard to see that her attitude was definitely hostile.

It put Ashenden at his ease. But she did not look stupid; she looked on the contrary, a woman of character, and Ashenden, who had lived enough in Germany to recognize the type, was ready to believe that though capable of doing the housework, cooking the dinner, and climbing a mountain, she might be also prodigiously well-informed.

She wore a white blouse that showed a sunburned neck, a black skirt and heavy walking boots. Caypor addressing her in English told her in his jovial way, as though she did not know it already, what Ashenden had told him about himself.

She listened grimly. I was at school there for one year. Her English was correct, but throaty, and the mouthing emphasis she gave her words was disagreeable.

Ashenden was diffuse in praise of the old university town and the beauty of the neighbourhood.

She heard him, from the standpoint of her Teutonic superiority, with toleration rather than with enthusiasm.

I told him that perhaps you could suggest a teacher. It could do Mr Somerville only harm to converse with a Swiss.

She is, if I may say so, a very cultivated and highly educated woman. I have my own work to do. Ashenden saw that he was being given his opportunity.

The trap was prepared and all he had to do was to fall in. He turned to Mrs Caypor with a manner that he tried to make shy, deprecating and modest.

I should look upon it as a real privilege. I am just here to get well, with nothing in the world to do, and I would suit my time entirely to your convenience.

Would you think ten francs an hour too much? Surely you can spare an hour, and you would be doing this gentleman a kindness.

He would learn that all Germans are not the devilish fiends that they think them in England. Heaven only knew how he would have to rack his brain for subjects of discourse with that heavy and morose woman.

Now she made a visible effort. When will you start, tomorrow at eleven? Ashenden left them to discuss the happy outcome of their diplomacy.

But when, punctually at eleven next morning, he heard a knock at his door for it had been arranged that Mrs Caypor should give him his lesson in his room it was not without trepidation that he opened it.

It behoved him to be frank, a trifle indiscreet, but obviously wary of a German woman, sufficiently intelligent, and impulsive. She plainly hated having anything to do with him.

But they sat down and she began, somewhat peremptorily, to ask him questions about his knowledge of German literature.

She corrected his mistakes with exactness and when he put before her some difficulty in German construction explained it with clearness and precision.

It was obvious that though she hated giving him a lesson she meant to give it conscientiously. She seemed to have not only an aptitude for teaching, but a love of it, and as the hour went on she began to speak with greater earnestness.

It was already only by an effort that she remembered that he was a brutal Englishman. Ashenden, noticing the unconscious struggle within her, found himself not a little entertained; and it was with truth that, when later in the day Caypor asked him how the lesson had gone, he answered that it was highly satisfactory; Mrs Caypor was an excellent teacher and a most interesting person.

And Ashenden had a feeling that when in his hearty, laughing way Caypor said this he was for the first time entirely sincere.

In a day or two Ashenden guessed that Mrs Caypor was giving him lessons only in order to enable Caypor to arrive at a closer intimacy with him, for she confined herself strictly to matters of literature, music, and painting; and when Ashenden, by way of experiment, brought the conversation round to the war, she cut him short.

Ashenden exercised in turn, but in vain, all his wiles. He was ingratiating, ingenuous, humble, grateful, flattering, simple, and timid.

She remained coldly hostile. She was a fanatic. Her patriotism was aggressive, but disinterested, and obsessed with the notion of the superiority of all things German she loathed England with a virulent hatred because in that country she saw the chief obstacle to their diffusion.

Her ideal was a German world in which the rest of the nations under a hegemony greater than that of Rome should enjoy the benefits of German science and German art and German culture.

She was no fool. She had read much, in several languages, and she could talk of the books she had read with good sense. She had a knowledge of modern painting and modern music that not a little impressed Ashenden.

It was amusing once to hear her before luncheon play one of those silvery little pieces of Debussy; she played it disdainfully because it was French and so light, but with an angry appreciation of its grace and gaiety.

When Ashenden congratulated her she shrugged her shoulders. Then with powerful hands she struck the first resounding chords of a sonata by Beethoven; but she stopped.

You have not produced a composer since Purcell! The little I know of music my wife taught me. I wish you could hear her play when she is in practice.

I wonder why. Ashenden admired goodness, but was not outraged by wickedness. People sometimes thought him heartless because he was more often interested in others than attached to them, and even in the few to whom he was attached his eyes saw with equal clearness the merits and the defects.

When he liked people it was not because he was blind to their faults, he did not mind their faults but accepted them with a tolerant shrug of the shoulders, or because he ascribed to them excellencies that they did not possess; and since he judged his friends with candour they never disappointed him and so he seldom lost one.

He asked from none more than he could give. He was able to pursue his study of the Caypors without prejudice and without passion.

It was touching. Ashenden assembled the observations that he had been making for the past few days and little things that he had noticed but to which he had attached no significance returned to him.

But then there was the espionage. Even Ashenden with all his tolerance for human frailty could not but feel that to betray your country for money is not a very pretty proceeding.

Of course she knew of it, indeed it was probably through her that Caypor had first been approached; he would never have undertaken such work if she had not urged him to it.

She loved him and she was an honest and an upright woman. By what devious means had she persuaded herself to force her husband to adopt so base and dishonourable a calling?

Ashenden lost himself in a labyrinth of conjecture as he tried to piece together the actions of her mind. Grantley Caypor was another story.

There was little to admire in him, but at that moment Ashenden was not looking for an object of admiration; but there was much that was singular and much that was unexpected in that gross and vulgar fellow.

Ashenden watched with entertainment the suave manner in which the spy tried to inveigle him in his toils. His faithful Fritzi came up to him and put his long muzzle with its black nose on his knee.

Look at those little pink eyes. Did you ever see anything so stupid? And what an ugly face, but what incredible charm!

By the way, what do you think of the news today? Of course my wife and I never discuss the war. He handed Ashenden a cheap Swiss cigar and Ashenden, making a rueful sacrifice to duty, accepted it.

I knew they were beaten the moment we came in. His manner was earnest, sincere, and confidential. Ashenden made a commonplace rejoinder.

With my knowledge of languages I ought to be of some service in the Censorship Department. That was the mark at which he had been aiming and in answer now to his well-directed questions Ashenden gave him the information that he had already prepared.

Caypor drew his chair a little nearer and dropped his voice. Then he went on another tack. He told Ashenden a number of things that were of a certain secrecy.

Thus encouraged, Ashenden was a little more deliberately indiscreet and when they parted both had reason to be satisfied.

One evening, going upstairs after dinner, Ashenden passed an open bathroom. He caught sight of the Caypors. Ashenden went in.

Mrs Caypor with her sleeves turned up and a large white apron was standing at one end of the bath, while Caypor, in a pair of trousers and a singlet, his fat, freckled arms bare, was soaping the wretched hound.

We wait till they go to bed. Come along, Fritzi, show the gentleman how beautifully you behave when you have your face scrubbed.

The poor brute, woebegone but faintly wagging his tail to show that however foul was this operation performed on him he bore no malice to the god who did it, was standing in the middle of the bath in six inches of water.

He was soaped all over and Caypor, talking the while, shampooed him with his great fat hands. Now stand still while you have your ears washed.

Noblesse oblige. Now the black nose. Mrs Caypor listened to this nonsense with a good-humoured sluggish smile on her broad, plain face, and presently gravely took a towel.

Caypor seized the dog by the fore-legs and ducked him once and ducked him twice. There was a struggle, a flurry and a splashing. Caypor lifted him out of the bath.

Mrs Caypor sat down and taking the dog between her strong legs rubbed him till the sweat poured off her forehead.

Ashenden was faintly troubled. He shivered a little as he walked upstairs. Then, one Sunday, Caypor told him that he and his wife were going on an excursion and would eat their luncheon at some little mountain restaurant; and he suggested that Ashenden, each paying his share, should come with them.

After three weeks at Lucerne Ashenden thought that his strength would permit him to venture the exertion.

They started early, Mrs Caypor businesslike in her walking boots and Tyrolese hat and alpenstock, and Caypor in stockings and plus-fours looking very British.

The situation amused Ashenden and he was prepared to enjoy his day; but he meant to keep his eyes open; it was not inconceivable that the Caypors had discovered what he was and it would not do to go too near a precipice; Mrs Caypor would not hesitate to give him a push and Caypor for all his jolliness was an ugly customer.

The air was fragrant. Caypor was full of conversation. He told funny stories. He was gay and jovial. The sweat rolled off his great red face and he laughed at himself because he was so fat.

Once he went out of the way to pick one he saw a little distance from the path and brought it back to his wife.

He looked at it tenderly. He is devoted to flowers. Often when we have hardly had enough money to pay the butcher he has spent everything in his pocket to bring me a bunch of roses.

Ashenden had once or twice seen Caypor, coming in from a walk, offer Mrs Fitzgerald a nosegay of mountain flowers with an elephantine courtesy that was not entirely displeasing; and what he had just learned added a certain significance to the pretty little action.

His passion for flowers was genuine and when he gave them to the old Irish lady he gave her something he valued. It showed a real kindness of heart.

Ashenden had always thought botany a tedious science, but Caypor, talking exuberantly as they walked along, was able to impart to it life and interest.

He must have given it a good deal of study. But if I stay here much longer I have half a mind to write a book about the wild flowers of Switzerland.

They were marvellous. It was curious to observe how he was able to combine real emotion with false fact. When they reached the inn, with its view of the mountains and the lake, it was good to see the sensual pleasure with which he poured down his throat a bottle of ice-cold beer.

You could not but feel sympathy for a man who took so much delight in simple things. Even Mrs Caypor was moved to an unwonted gentleness by her surroundings; the inn was in an agreeably rural spot, it looked like a picture of a Swiss chalet in a book of early nineteenth-century travels; and she treated Ashenden with something less than her usual hostility.

When they arrived she had burst into loud German exclamations on the beauty of the scene, and now, softened perhaps too by food and drink, her eyes, dwelling on the grandeur before her, filled with tears.

She stretched out her hand. Caypor took her hand and pressed it and, an unusual thing with him, addressing her in German, called her little pet-names.

It was absurd, but touching. Ashenden, leaving them to their emotions, strolled through the garden and sat down on a bench that had been prepared for the comfort of the tourist.

The view was of course spectacular, but it captured you; it was like a piece of music that was obvious and meretricious, but for the moment shattered your self-control.

If he liked strange people he had found in him one who was strange beyond belief. It would be foolish to deny that he had amiable traits.

His joviality was not assumed, he was without pretence a hearty fellow, and he had real good nature.

He was always ready to do a kindness. Now that Ashenden had arrived at terms of some familiarity with Caypor he found that he regarded him less with repulsion than with curiosity.

He did not think that he had become a spy merely for the money; he was a man of modest tastes and what he had earned in a shipping-office must have sufficed to so good a manager as Mrs Caypor; and after war was declared there was no lack of remunerative work for men over the military age.

It might be that he was one of those men who prefer devious, ways to straight for some intricate pleasure they get in fooling their fellows; and that he had turned spy, not from hatred of the country that had imprisoned him, not even from love of his wife, but from a desire to score off the big-wigs who never even knew of his existence.

It might be that it was vanity that impelled him, a feeling that his talents had not received the recognition they merited, or just a puckish, impish desire to do mischief.

He was a crook. It is true that only two cases of dishonesty had been brought home to him, but if he had been caught twice it might be surmised that he had often been dishonest without being caught.

What did Mrs Caypor think of this? They were so united that she must be aware of it. Did it make her ashamed, for her own uprightness surely none could doubt, or did she accept it as an inevitable kink in the man she loved?

Did she do all she could to prevent it or did she close her eyes to something she could not help?

How much easier life would be if people were all black or all white and how much simpler it would be to act in regard to them!

Was Caypor a good man who loved evil or a bad man who loved good? And how could such unreconcilable elements exist side by side and in harmony within the same heart?

For one thing was clear, Caypor was disturbed by no gnawing of conscience; he did his mean and despicable work with gusto. He was a traitor who enjoyed his treachery.

Of course R. That was true enough. Ashenden had decided that it would be useless to attempt to make any arrangement with Caypor.

Though doubtless he would have no feeling about betraying his employers he could certainly not be trusted. Besides, notwithstanding what he had from time to time told Ashenden, he was in his heart convinced that the Central Powers must win the war, and he meant to be on the winning side.

Well, then Caypor must be laid by the heels, but how he was to effect that Ashenden had no notion. Suddenly he heard a voice.

He looked around and saw the Caypors strolling towards him. They were walking hand in hand. I thought the examination of passports was quite perfunctory.

A fleeting glance passed between Caypor and his wife. Ashenden wondered what it meant. In a little while Mrs Caypor suggested that they had better be starting back and they wandered together in the shade of trees down the mountain paths.

Ashenden was watchful. He could do nothing and his inactivity irked him but wait with his eyes open to seize the opportunity that might present itself.

A couple of days later an incident occurred that made him certain something was in the wind. In the course of his morning lesson Mrs Caypor remarked:.

He had some business to do there. It is not everyone who can tell a lie and Ashenden had the feeling, he hardly knew why, that Mrs Caypor was telling one then.

Her manner perhaps was not quite as indifferent as you would have expected when she was mentioning a fact that could be of no interest to Ashenden.

It flashed across his mind that Caypor had been summoned to Berne to see the redoubtable head of the German secret service. When he had the chance he said casually to the waitress:.

I hear that Herr Caypor has gone to Berne. That proved nothing, but it was something to go upon.

Ashenden knew in Lucerne a Swiss who was willing in emergency to do odd jobs, and looking him up, asked him to take a letter to Berne.

It might be possible to pick up Caypor and trace his movements. Next day Caypor appeared once more with his wife at the dinner-table, but merely nodded to Ashenden and afterwards both went straight upstairs.

They looked troubled. Caypor, as a rule so animated, walked with bowed shoulders and looked neither to the right nor to the left.

Next morning Ashenden received a reply to his letter: Caypor had seen Major von P. It was possible to guess what the Major had said to him.

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